Personnel development

  • In 2019, reported staff-development spend at state schools in England amounted to just over £260m. In nominal terms, this has been flat since 2015. Allowing for inflation, it was lower in 2019 than in 2014.
  • Among secondary schools, staff-development spending was higher in 2018 and 2019 than in previous years, but this has been offset by a decline in spending by primary schools.
  • Spend per teacher in 2019 was £651 in primary schools and £476 in secondary schools. Though directly comparable figures are hard to come by, this appears to be lower than benchmarks across other industries. Only 14% of primary schools and 10% of secondary schools spent at least 1% of their budgets on staff development.
  • There are considerable regional disparities: staff-development spending has tended to be higher in the south-east of England and lowest in the midlands and south-west.
  • Large multi-academy trusts continue to show higher levels of per-teacher spend, but not to the degree previously observed in 2018.

Figure 1: Annual staff development spend by school type
Notes: Includes only state-funded schools in England. 'Primary' and 'secondary' categories include only mainstream schools. The relatively small number of all-through schools are classified as 'secondary'. 'Special and AP' contains special schools and alternative-provision institutions.
Sources: Department for Education; SchoolDash Insights; SchoolDash analysis.
Figure 2: Proportions of schools showing increased/decreased staff development spending compared to the year before
Notes: For definitions and analysis details, see notes to Figure 1.
Sources: Department for Education; SchoolDash Insights; SchoolDash analysis.
Figure 3: Distribution of staff development spend as a proportion of total school spend
Notes: For definitions and analysis details, see notes to Figure 1.
Sources: Department for Education; SchoolDash Insights; SchoolDash analysis.
Map 1: Average staff development spend by region (£ per teacher per year, 2012-2019)
Notes: For definitions and analysis details, see notes to Figure 1.
Sources: Department for Education; SchoolDash Insights; SchoolDash analysis.
Figure 4: Staff development spend per teacher
Notes: Small MATs are those with 10 or fewer schools. For other definitions and analysis details, see notes to Figure 1.
Sources: Department for Education; SchoolDash Insights; SchoolDash analysis.
  1. The use of per-teacher values should not be taken to imply that all staff development spend is necessarily devoted to teachers alone, though presumbly the vast majority of it is. Note also that per-teacher and per-pupil figures use full-time equivalents (FTEs), not headcounts.
  2. There is an alternative way of interpreting the UKCES data, which is to focus on the amount of money spent on external providers (£3.3bn in 2013) rather than the total spent on training employees (£21.3bn). Presumably the difference arises because many employers provide their own in-house training staff and resources rather than relying on third-parties or sending staff on external courses. We don't believe that this would be a fairer comparison because most schools don't have in-house trainers, and where they do (eg, large multil-academy trusts), this would presumably be captured as staff-development spend.

 

Why worry about white working-class boys?

Figure 1: The relationship between GCSE attainment and poverty
Note: Click on the legend to view data for boys or girls separately. Hover over the lines to see regression parameters.
Sources: Department for Education; SchoolDash analysis.
Figure 2: The relationship between GCSE attainment and ethnicity
Note: Click on the legend to view data for boys or girls separately. Hover over the lines to see regression parameters.
Sources: Department for Education; SchoolDash analysis.
Figure 3: The relationship between poverty and ethnicity
Note: Hover over the line to see regression parameters.
Sources: Department for Education; SchoolDash analysis.
Figure 4: The relationship between GCSE attainment and ethnicity among high-deprivation schools
Note: Click on the legend to view data for boys or girls separately. Hover over the lines to see regression parameters.
Sources: Department for Education; SchoolDash analysis.
Figure 5: The relationship between poverty and ethnicity among high-deprivation schools
Note: Hover over the line to see regression parameters.
Sources: Department for Education; SchoolDash analysis.
  • In England, if you don't want to be poor, it's better to be born white
  • But if you are poor and you want to do well at school, it's better to come from an ethnic minority
  • Whatever your class or ethnicity, you're more likely to get good results if you're a girl

  1. Attainment 8 scores can be converted into GCSE grades by dividing by 10. This is because, although eight subjects are included in the score, English and maths are double-weighted.

 

The impact of lockdown on children's education

  • Younger year groups generally show bigger reductions in attainment than older year groups
  • Children who are eligible for the Pupil Premium show larger average declines than those who are not
  • Schools with higher levels of deprivation, situated in urban areas or located in the north or midlands also show greater declines
  • There are often large differences between topics within the same subject

 

Eighty years on: Planes, pandemics and provinces

Map 1: World War II bombings and casualties in Great Britain (1939-1945)
 
Sources: War, State and Society; Google Maps; SchoolDash analysis.
Figure 1: World War II bombings and casualties in Great Britain (1939-1945)
Sources: War, State and Society; Google Maps; SchoolDash analysis.
Figure 2: Socioeconomic, educational and demographic indicators by local authority area
Sources: War, State and Society; Department for Education; Office for National Statistics; Office for Students; SchoolDash analysis.
  1. Note that this omits specific targets on the coast of Kent because, in modern administrative terms, the whole of Kent constitutes one local authority.
  2. This is normalised to 100 for the whole of England. It uses current population figures because we can't think of a good way of estimating wartime populations for present-day local authorities. If you can then please let us know:

 

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